The moon is the closest neighbor of the Earth, and now mankind continues to actively study our satellite. Not so long ago, the Chinese sent a station to the moon, which completed a number of scientific tasks. Now the European Space Agency plans to join the direct study of the moon. Only not its surface, about which a lot is known, but caves.

Yes, there are caves on the moon, and quite a few. Some of them can serve as a reliable shelter for lunar colonists, which will allow them to avoid a number of dangers that threaten on the surface. ESA collected lots of ideas proposed by scientists and engineers and selected the five most promising. Then another stage of selection followed, so now the agency has three ideas that are planned to be implemented. They are all interconnected.
Tags: moon, Robots
Papay 13 march 2021, 13:07


Summary: due to the presence of hydrogen bonds in water molecules, the configuration of the O-H covalent bonds changes, with the accumulation of additional energy in them, released during cooling and working as an additional heating that prevents freezing. In hot water, the hydrogen bonds are stretched, the covalent bonds are not strained, the energy storage is low-cooling and freezing is faster. There is a certain characteristic time tau required for the formation of hydrogen bonds; if the cooling process proceeds slowly, then the Mpemba effect will disappear. If the cooling process proceeds relatively quickly (up to tens of minutes), then the effect is pronounced. Probably, there must also be some critical temperature, starting from which the effect appears, but this is not reflected in the article.
Tags: physics
xially 12 march 2021, 16:58


Would it surprise you if I said that BASIC is still relevant? In addition to being the progenitor of modern home computing, the language is still viable even outside the retro-enthusiast circles. We propose to plunge into a brief overview of the history of its formation, starting from the basics and ending with modern implementations.
xially 12 march 2021, 16:50

Crystal structure of S. aureus Cas9 in complex with crRNA and its target DNA

In past posts, you asked tell in more detail about CRISPR / Cas9 and approaches to genome editing. I just did not include such a voluminous material in the last post. And in this I will not include, for example, the TALEN method, which can potentially be more accurate and has its advantages. But darling, yes.

Let's try to walk through the already well-described method of genetic modification using CRISPR-Cas9 and look a little more broadly at the prospects that it opens up for us. I was wildly interested in the direction of xenogeneic transplantation from pigs to humans. The first, "pre-correction" methods showed that such a pig transplant is killed by the body within a few minutes ... But the method was not discarded at all. Still, this is a promising way not to wait until the next potential organ donor dies, but to grow them in advance. Then it turned out that pigs also carry a pack of specific retroviruses that are built into their genome and can cause an epidemic of a new xenozoonosis. And viruses, too, must somehow be picked out before transplantation. And somewhere here people in white coats appear on the stage, doing something incomprehensible in their laboratories ...
KlauS 11 march 2021, 9:56


The website and online store "Eldorado" is about 40 thousand purchases every day. There is probably no need to explain what this means for the company's business.

Historically, the store runs on the Bitrix engine with a huge amount of custom code and add-ons. The storage is a MySQL cluster with four master servers.

A significant number of companies have monolithic applications, and many have to work with them. There are plenty of ways to deal with the monolith, but, unfortunately, few people write about successful ones. I hope that the story of how we prop up our monolith (until we saw it) will be of interest to you.

We are well aware that massive architecture can bring a lot of problems. But it is easy to destroy it, by a simple strong-willed decision, it is impossible: sales are going, the site should work, changes for users should not be radical. Therefore, the transition from a monolith to a set of microservices takes time, which we need to hold out: to ensure the system is operational and its resistance to stress.
xially 11 march 2021, 9:53

imageWith the latest breakthrough, the eerie vibrations of a new, pulsating form of matter have been filmed for the first time using a special microscope. It allows us to see this strange, phase form of matter, which is very different from the usual solids, liquids, gases and plasmas.

The picture was taken by Maximus, an ultra-powerful X-ray microscope at the Helmholtz Center in Berlin. It gives us an idea of the behavior of new time crystals, which were first experimentally created in the laboratory in 2016. The discovery promises "outstanding new breakthroughs in basic research," says material published by the German-Polish team in Physical Review Letters.
Skull 10 march 2021, 16:04

Usage example:

#include "print.h"

int main() {
print("number:", 25,
"fractional number:", 1.2345,
"expression:", (2.0 + 5) / 3
number: 25 fractional number: 1.2345 expression: 2.33333 Generic calls are not only easier to type than standard printf (), but there will be no more compiler warnings that the format character after% "is of the wrong type.

Genericprint, can print all major C types, integers, signed and unsigned, floating point and pointers:

char *s = "abc";
void *p = main;
long l = 1234567890123456789;
unsigned char byte = 222;
char ch = 'A';
print("string:", s, "pointer:", p, "long:", l);
print(byte, ch)
string: "abc" pointer: 0x402330 long: 1234567890123456789
222 <0xDE> 'A'65
Different types are displayed in different colors, the palette can be customized, or the color can be turned off altogether.
Tags: printf
Papay 10 march 2021, 16:00

imageGALILEO by Intel®. Honestly taken from here ( and maintenance of the developed electronic product.

There will be no secret knowledge or revelations. I will just describe a number of tricks that help save a little time on debugging and a little more of your own nerves. All this separately, obviously, can be found on the net in one form or another.
All of the following is by no means the ultimate truth, but just the private professional opinion of the author.

And further. If you recognize only EPSN-40, solid rosin and soldering fat, apply sealant sausages with your hands and trace in the sprintlayout, most likely some tips and ideas will not work for you, so feel free to skip them and do not waste your time and nerves on proving that that everything works anyway.
Tags: chip
MeLavi 9 march 2021, 14:19


In the early 1960s, the world was dominated by Fortran (IBM's John Backus) for scientific and Cobol (IBM's Jean Summet and Department of Defense) for commercial use. Programs were written on paper, then perforated on cards, after which the results of their execution were waited for the whole day. Programming languages were considered important assistants and accelerators of the programming process.

In 1960, an international committee published the Algol 601 language specification. For the first time, a language was defined by well-defined constructs and a precise, formal syntax. Two years later, it became clear that some fixes and improvements were required. However, the main task was to expand the range of applications, since ALGOL 60 was intended only for scientific computing (computational mathematics). To work on this project, a Working Group (WG 2.1) was assembled under the auspices of the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP).
KlauS 9 march 2021, 14:17


Finally, in the topic of navigation interference, we got to the coolest and most interesting. Moreover, this interesting turned out to be not so difficult technically.

This is interesting - spatial processing of signals from antenna arrays. In ordinary, especially amateur, radio communication and radio navigation practice, this is still rare. This is due to the additional multiple costs for the number of radio paths. But sometimes this is perfectly acceptable. For example, in mobile communications. Spatial processing, MIMO, is widely used here. Even a regular WiFi hotspot has had it for a long time.
Papay 5 march 2021, 22:03
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