In the comments under the previous entry about the apocalypse in Iceland, the people did not mind if I told about the unique original - Easter Island. I'll tell you a little.
There is one beautiful and exotic place on our planet: Easter Island. Now it is a practically barren land triangle in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, slightly larger than Kostroma. But this was not always the case, and about 500 years ago, this wilderness was the center of one of the most unusual civilizations in the world.
This civilization created its own pantheon, unique writing and remarkable moai monuments, but then it actually self-destructed, and by the time the Europeans arrived, only a couple of thousand inhabitants remained on the island, diving back into the Stone Age.
What happened? If you read the history of the settlement of the island (the first settlers arrived there on giant rafts, which were so huge by those standards that even "hare passengers" were buried there), then they had to go through a lot. For example, the first detachment of scouts that set off BEFORE the main "wagon train" disappeared into the ocean and for this received one of the iconic compositions on the island of 7 statues.
There are many examples of a man-made nightmare created by man in the world. What is more amusing, the current example is revered today as an example of avaricious northern beauty, although a thousand years ago it could have claimed the status of “northern paradise”. What is this example?
Iceland before the settlement of the first people was, for a minute, for a THIRD occupied by the forest. Yes, this forest consisted of Icelandic birch, not the best tree. But he was, and the first settlers-Scandinavians, who arrived in the midst of the climatic optimum, liked the island hefty.
A lot of free land, optimum + Gulf Stream - it's not too hot outside, of course, but not too cold. Forests, fresh water ...
The "extra" forests were the first to go for firewood - after all, the sheep need to be grazed somewhere. When firewood was not needed, the forest was simply burned. Then they began to cut down for the sake of wood, since the fin forest did not provide the island for it, and it was expensive to transport logs from the continent.
When humans settled in Central America (about 15,000 years ago), they didn't have to domesticate the avocado. Pick these wonderful fruits from the tree and eat. Save the bones and plant wherever you want. No fiddling around raising fruitful varieties from wild ancestors. These are not millennia-long attempts to domesticate corn.
But how did it turn out so well? The fact is that all the breeding work, even before people, was done by someone else, simple, but big. And people came to everything ready.
To understand how this happened, let's observe how natural selection works in plants. To win the competition, they have to come up with clever breeding methods. The task is to spread the seeds over a large area.
If your seeds just fell and rotted under the tree, there is little use. Part of it will certainly germinate, an even smaller part will survive to adulthood. But the population of such trees is at great risk, because the parent is competing with its own children in a small area. You need to spread in all directions and occupy free spaces, then the species will flourish.
In the early 1960s, the world was dominated by Fortran (IBM's John Backus) for scientific and Cobol (IBM's Jean Summet and Department of Defense) for commercial use. Programs were written on paper, then perforated on cards, after which the results of their execution were waited for the whole day. Programming languages were considered important assistants and accelerators of the programming process.
In 1960, an international committee published the Algol 601 language specification. For the first time, a language was defined by well-defined constructs and a precise, formal syntax. Two years later, it became clear that some fixes and improvements were required. However, the main task was to expand the range of applications, since ALGOL 60 was intended only for scientific computing (computational mathematics). To work on this project, a Working Group (WG 2.1) was assembled under the auspices of the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP).
SMS abbreviation is known to all of us. The fact that it is a service for an exchange of short text messages between the subscribers of cellular networks is known even to each child now, who got the first mobile phone before entering a school. But not everyone knows how this technology is made and appeared. Today, we would like to tell you the story of SMS emergence, where Nokia played a very important role. We will also mention some aspects of this technology and some interesting facts.
Linux origin can be traced back to the 70s of the 20th century. Its starting point began from the first release of Unix operating system in 1969 by Bell Laboratories, subsidiary of AT & T in the U.S. Unix has become the basic one for a large number of industrial-grade operating systems. The most basic of them showed on this timescale:
Linux is mostly indebted to two projects - GNU and Minix.
The story of the GNU project started in September 1983. The founder of GNU project, Richard M. Stallman worked at that time in the Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Stallman is considered as one of the most leading programmers of these days.
Everyone has a history. A person changes over time, changes appearance, character, remained unchanged only the name. This year, Adobe celebrates its 25th anniversary. A quarter of century is a considerable age even for a man, and for a company that deals with the computer technologies is simply a great age, few companies can boast about such history.
Let us look back and see how Adobe has been developed over the time and its most famous product - Photoshop. Let us trace the transformation of the logo and loading screen.
The company logo was changed three times.
Vanrok Marwa drew this version; she is the wife of Vanrok John, who is the founder of Adobe.