A must-see for cattle breeders: How to raise beef cattle well in spring?
With the arrival of spring and warmer weather, this is the fastest growing season of the year for beef cattle. To seize the favorable opportunity of spring to do a good job in beef cattle fattening, we need to pay attention to the following aspects.
1 To do a good job in feeding management
One is to use barn feeding and fattening. Due to the erratic climate in spring, it is necessary to strengthen the work of keeping warm to prevent drafts and drafts. Especially when it is cold in spring, we must pay more attention to keeping warm. However, house feeding and fattening are less affected by the climate, and the environment is relatively stable, especially for lactating cows. Moreover, high-quality beef can be obtained by fattening in house feeding, and the feed conversion efficiency is also high.
Feeding methods include: free feeding in small pens, regular feeding in small pens, regular rest in the upper and lower troughs, and regular feeding all day long. In spring, when fattening in house feeding, it is generally fed twice a day, and green feed can be supplemented appropriately at night to allow cattle to eat freely.
The second is to group cattle reasonably. Different types of cattle require different nutrients, so the corresponding feed should be supplied according to the age and weight of the cattle. The cattle are grouped according to sex, age, and weight, so that the feeding standard, the feeding amount, and the slaughter can be unified, which is beneficial to management. It is a measure that must be taken for large-scale cattle breeding.
The third is to strengthen the feeding and management of beef cattle. It is necessary to keep the beef barn hygienic, the cattle body clean and the environment quiet. The feeding time should not be too long. It is recommended to feed twice a day at 6-8 am and 4-6 pm. Keep the trough or water tank clean when not feeding, and give water once a day after feeding in the morning and afternoon. The feeding method of concentrated feed is preferably wet mix.
2 Reasonable preparation of feed
It is not suitable for grazing in early spring, and the whole house should be fed and fattened in the house. In order to meet the activities of beef cattle rumen microorganisms, it is necessary to ensure sufficient roughage. For roughage, it is best to choose silage corn, ammoniated straw, peanut seedlings, sweet potato seedlings, etc., and silage is preferred. In order to promote the rapid growth of beef cattle, it is also necessary to feed the beef cattle with concentrated feed. The feeding amount of concentrated feed is 1.5-2 kg per 100 kg of beef cattle body weight.
The recommended concentrate feed is prepared according to the following ratio: 48% corn, 30% soybean meal, 17% bran, and 5% beef cattle premix. Coarse and concentrated feeds must be properly matched. Generally, coarse feed is fed first and then fine feed, rough grass is fed first, distiller's grains are fed, and then fine feed is fed until the feed is full. If possible, use a TMR mixer to mix all the forage evenly before feeding.
3 Let the cattle do the right amount of exercise
Strengthening exercise is beneficial to the metabolism of cattle, promotes digestion, enhances the adaptability of cattle to changes in the external environment, and prevents the decline of cattle physique and the occurrence of limb and hoof diseases. For different types of cattle, let them do different exercises, such as allowing cows and young fattening cattle to move freely in the playground, and adopt "circling" compulsory exercise for breeding bulls, two hours a day, divided into two times in the morning and afternoon conduct. However, for adult shelf cattle, their movement should be limited as much as possible so that they can gain weight as soon as possible in a short fattening period. There are two methods of restricting the movement of shelf cattle:
One is intensive feeding, each cow is given 3 square meters of space, so that its activity space is limited;
The second is to tie (tied) the cattle so that they cannot move.
4 Strengthen disease prevention work
One is strict epidemic prevention. Spring is a period of high incidence of diseases. It is necessary to formulate a reasonable immunization program, prevent and treat diseases in time, and plan immunizations in a timely manner. In addition, regular disinfection should be carried out to keep the breeding environment clean and hygienic to prevent the increase and spread of pathogenic microorganisms; during the fattening process, attention should be paid to observing the feeding, excretion and mental state of the cattle.
The second is to reduce stress. The beginning of spring is the season with the worst body condition of beef cattle, and it is also the season when cows calve and start to estrus after giving birth. Whether or not the cattle can be raised at this time is related to the production efficiency of the whole year. Breeders should try their best to provide a warm, quiet and comfortable beef cattle breeding environment. Especially when it is cold in the spring, we should pay more attention to keep warm. The most suitable ambient temperature for beef cattle is 5-21°C, so the temperature in the barn should be kept above 5°C.
The third is regular deworming. Beef cattle undergo a comprehensive deworming before entering the house for fattening. Oral administration of 4 Chongbuxing Capsules (containing 20 mg of active ingredient) per 100 kg of body weight, or subcutaneous injection of 2 ml per 100 kg of body weight; or 5-7 mg of anti-histamine per kg of body weight, or levamisole 6-8 mg to get rid of various parasites in the body. It is also possible to add 500 grams of fenbendazole per ton of feed, and feed it according to the normal feeding method, which has a good effect on repelling parasites inside and outside the beef cattle.
5 Increase sun exposure time
Sun exposure has a good health care effect on beef cattle, which can enhance the immunity of beef cattle and prevent various diseases and infections. Because the ultraviolet rays in the sun have the effect of killing germs. Moreover, ultraviolet rays can increase the absorption of calcium by beef cattle. During the feeding process in spring, beef cattle consume a lot of heat energy and nutrients in their bodies due to cold resistance, and the intake of calcium is relatively heavy, and the intake of calcium depends on vitamin D. . The natural vitamin D can only be absorbed into the blood by the body of beef cattle by turning into vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 under ultraviolet radiation.
6 Timely slaughter
Correctly judging the best end date of fattening cattle and timely slaughtering can reduce beef cattle feed and capital investment, reduce feeding costs, improve economic benefits of cattle raising, and ensure beef quality. Therefore, it is of great significance in cattle breeding. There are generally several ways to judge whether the fattening cattle have reached the optimal end period:
One is the feeling of slaughtering fat. Fat condition is an important factor to determine whether it is suitable for slaughter. After fattening, the frame cattle become wider and fatter. The whole body of the beef cattle is cylindrical, with thick head, neck and limbs. Large and thick, with thick limbs. If you touch the back, hip, heel, scapula, ribs, abdomen and other parts of the cow with your hands, you can feel that the muscles are thick and the subcutaneous soft; The body condition is good, and it can be slaughtered in time.
The second is the appetite for slaughter. The feed intake of fattening cattle before the end of the fattening period can be followed regularly, and the absolute feed intake increases with the extension of the fattening period. If there is a trend of declining feed intake, it means that the fattening cattle are about to reach the end of the fattening period; if the feed intake When the feed intake drops to 1/3 or less of the normal feed intake, and after some measures to promote appetite, the appetite of the cattle still cannot be restored, indicating that the compensation growth is over and the fattening should be ended.
The third is the slaughter weight. After 3-4 months of fattening, the frame cattle will weigh more than 500 kilograms and gain more than 100 kilograms.
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