In the comments under the previous entry about the apocalypse in Iceland, the people did not mind if I told about the unique original - Easter Island. I'll tell you a little.
There is one beautiful and exotic place on our planet: Easter Island. Now it is a practically barren land triangle in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, slightly larger than Kostroma. But this was not always the case, and about 500 years ago, this wilderness was the center of one of the most unusual civilizations in the world.
This civilization created its own pantheon, unique writing and remarkable moai monuments, but then it actually self-destructed, and by the time the Europeans arrived, only a couple of thousand inhabitants remained on the island, diving back into the Stone Age.
What happened? If you read the history of the settlement of the island (the first settlers arrived there on giant rafts, which were so huge by those standards that even "hare passengers" were buried there), then they had to go through a lot. For example, the first detachment of scouts that set off BEFORE the main "wagon train" disappeared into the ocean and for this received one of the iconic compositions on the island of 7 statues.
This is where our hero is at the moment.
Representatives of NASA and JPL immediately after the successful arrival of the rover to Mars gave a press conference, and then shared additional information - about the future fate of the rover. "Seven minutes of horror" did not frighten anyone (although it made them worry), but now the most interesting part begins - the exploration of the Red Planet.
We know where the rover is, but we want to see what surrounds it with our own eyes. And soon such an opportunity will present itself. Plus a lot more interesting things.
There are many examples of a man-made nightmare created by man in the world. What is more amusing, the current example is revered today as an example of avaricious northern beauty, although a thousand years ago it could have claimed the status of “northern paradise”. What is this example?
Iceland before the settlement of the first people was, for a minute, for a THIRD occupied by the forest. Yes, this forest consisted of Icelandic birch, not the best tree. But he was, and the first settlers-Scandinavians, who arrived in the midst of the climatic optimum, liked the island hefty.
A lot of free land, optimum + Gulf Stream - it's not too hot outside, of course, but not too cold. Forests, fresh water ...
The "extra" forests were the first to go for firewood - after all, the sheep need to be grazed somewhere. When firewood was not needed, the forest was simply burned. Then they began to cut down for the sake of wood, since the fin forest did not provide the island for it, and it was expensive to transport logs from the continent.
Legislative initiatives, especially in the United States, have often become the subject of irrepressible controversy and sincere misunderstanding. So today I want to tell you about bill 246 - a legal act that was considered in the Senate of Indiana in 1897.
Three years earlier, rural physician Edward Goodwin (1825-1902), who considered himself a good mathematician, published an article in the American Mathematical Months in which he claimed to have solved the problem of squaring the circle.
A few days ago, researchers drilled the Antarctic shelf in order to take samples of sediments on the ocean floor. Instead, they found a colony of animals that couldn't be there. About their find tells Wired.
To study the history of the continental shelf, geologist James Smith and colleagues wanted to collect sediments on the seabed beneath Antarctica. To get there, they had to melt 20 tons of snow and create 20,000 liters of hot water. This water was pumped into a pipe lowered into a well. Which gradually melted the ice and sank lower and lower. It took them 20 hours to break through a kilometer of ice in this way.
After that, the geologists lowered a soil collection tool along with a GoPro camera into the borehole. But the manifold returned empty. They tried again. It's still empty. It was not possible to collect any soil.
You are at an altitude of ten kilometers, and you fall without a parachute. You have little chance, but a small number of people, finding themselves in a similar situation, managed to survive.
6:59:00, altitude 10,000 m
You went to bed early yesterday and you had an early flight today. You fall asleep shortly after takeoff. And suddenly you wake up abruptly - cold air whistles around you and a noise is heard. Terrible and loud. Where I am? - you think. Where is the plane?
You are at an altitude of 10 km. One. And you fall.
When humans settled in Central America (about 15,000 years ago), they didn't have to domesticate the avocado. Pick these wonderful fruits from the tree and eat. Save the bones and plant wherever you want. No fiddling around raising fruitful varieties from wild ancestors. These are not millennia-long attempts to domesticate corn.
But how did it turn out so well? The fact is that all the breeding work, even before people, was done by someone else, simple, but big. And people came to everything ready.
To understand how this happened, let's observe how natural selection works in plants. To win the competition, they have to come up with clever breeding methods. The task is to spread the seeds over a large area.
If your seeds just fell and rotted under the tree, there is little use. Part of it will certainly germinate, an even smaller part will survive to adulthood. But the population of such trees is at great risk, because the parent is competing with its own children in a small area. You need to spread in all directions and occupy free spaces, then the species will flourish.
Hello, Habr! It so happened that my colleague and I today published a scientific article in BioEssays magazine devoted to the analysis of conspiracy theory, which was originally formulated in the form of a post on Habré. It seemed logical to me to publish the analysis not only on my blog, but also here, especially since kind people invited me here.
In early February this year, WHO specialists who visited Wuhan said at a press conference that they exclude  the version of the artificial origin of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. The virus probably came from bats through an unknown intermediate host.
Indeed, during the epidemic, a lot of versions appeared in the media about the artificial origin of the coronavirus. Most of them suspected the Wuhan laboratory, but there were also accusations against the United States and even the Russian "Vector". It was argued that SARS-CoV-2 was made using the sequences of the HIV genome, human genes, that this is a coronavirus from a scientific publication in the journal Nature - all this was discussed in detail on the pages of my blog
... According to statistics, 100% of the population of Mars are robots.
In recent days, only the lazy has not watched reports on the Perseverance rover (Perseverance, emphasis on the last "e"). On the Internet, you can even listen to the wind of the red planet, it barely breaks through the buzzer of the rover's mechanical joints.
Today we will change the focus a little and talk about more mundane things. What technologies enable the rover to work? How are cloud companies involved in space exploration? And in general - what are the plans of mankind for the Martian lands in the framework of an ambitious mission.
Cloud computing helps the rover stay on trackAmazon Web Services (AWS) recently talked about the role cloud computing plays in processing data from Perseverance.
During the entire mission, NASA is going to store and process arrays of information coming from Mars in the AWS cloud. For a moment, every day the rover sends a record number of photos, audio and video recordings.
AWS Representative Jaime Baker presents Cape Canaveral King's Ticket to Name the Mars Rover 2020 winner Alex Mather and his family. Photo: (NASA / Aubrey Geminiani) Recall that during 2020, a competition was held in the United States for the best name for a new Mars mission.
Summary: due to the presence of hydrogen bonds in water molecules, the configuration of the O-H covalent bonds changes, with the accumulation of additional energy in them, released during cooling and working as an additional heating that prevents freezing. In hot water, the hydrogen bonds are stretched, the covalent bonds are not strained, the energy storage is low-cooling and freezing is faster. There is a certain characteristic time tau required for the formation of hydrogen bonds; if the cooling process proceeds slowly, then the Mpemba effect will disappear. If the cooling process proceeds relatively quickly (up to tens of minutes), then the effect is pronounced. Probably, there must also be some critical temperature, starting from which the effect appears, but this is not reflected in the article.