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Introduction
Linear Displacement Sensor, also called Linear Transducer or Linear Potentiometer Sensor, is a device used to monitor and measure linear position, which convert mechanical physical quantities into electrical signals. Linear potentiometer is a type of variable resistance sensor, designed to measure the displacement of a slider or wiper in a linear direction. Also known as a slider or pot, linear potentiometers produce a changing rate of resistance, dependent on the position of a slider or wiper.
KPM Linear Displacement Sensor

1 Linear Displacement Sensor Working Principle
The function of the linear displacement sensor is to convert the linear mechanical displacement into an electrical signal. In order to achieve this effect, the sensor slide rail is connected to a steady-state DC voltage, allowing a small current of microamperes to flow, and the voltage between the slide and the starting end is proportional to the length of the slide. Using the sensor as a voltage divider can minimize the requirements for the accuracy of the total resistance of the sliding rail, because the resistance change caused by the temperature change will not affect the measurement result. The linear displacement sensor is actually a sliding rheostat. Using the sensor as a voltage divider can minimize the requirements for the accuracy of the total resistance of the sliding rail, because the resistance change caused by the temperature change will not affect the measurement result.


2 Linear Potentiometer Sensor Design Parameters
For the general linear displacement sensor:
Wear resistance life: >100X106 times
Linear accuracy error: <0.05%
Repeatability error: <0.005mm
Maximum moving speed: 10m/s
Impact factor: IEC 68-2-29:1968 50g
Vibration factor: IEC 68-2-6:1982 20g
Maximum allowable voltage: DC60V/5KΩ~20KΩ; DC36V/2KΩ~4KΩ; DC24V/1KΩ
Temperature drift coefficient: <1.5ppm/℃


3 Linear Transducer Applications
1) KTC, KTM, LS tie rod structure is a general structure, with optional pull ball universal head or universal head, can reduce the adverse effects caused by the installation of non-neutral. They are suitable for injection molding machines, textile machinery, woodworking machinery, etc.
2) KPC and KPM fixed belts at both ends are hinged and sporty, suitable for swinging, and in measurement systems where the sensor body cannot be fixed, and the sensor will move with the measurement movement.
3) KTF and KFM slider types are suitable for the application of the smallest installation length size. With the extension arm, it can eliminate the adverse effects of installation misalignment.
4) KTR type is a miniature self-recovery rod structure, no need to tow and install.
5) KPF type can also detect the internal displacement of the cavity.
KPC Linear Displacement Sensor

4 Linear Displacement Sensor Types Recommendation
1) Tie Rod Type
Universal drawbar conductive plastic film series, effective stroke 75mm ~ 1250mm, 4mm buffer stroke at both ends, precision 0.05%~ 0.04%FS.
The surface of the shell is anodized, anti-corrosion.
Built-in conductive plastic measuring unit, no temperature drift, long life, and automatic electrical grounding function.
The sealing grade is IP67, DIN430650 standard plug and socket, which can be applied to most general occasions.
The tie rod ball joint has 0.5mm automatic centering function, and the allowable extreme movement speed is 10m/s.
2) Sliding Type
General-purpose slider conductive plastic film series, effective stroke 75mm~3000mm, 4mm buffer stroke at both ends, precision 0.05%~0.02%FS.
The surface of the shell is anodized, anti-corrosion.
Built-in conductive plastic measuring unit, no temperature drift, long life, and automatic electrical grounding function.
The sealing level is IP54 (IP57 when installed downwards), DIN430650 standard plug and socket, which can be used in most general occasions, especially the length direction is limited, the alignment is difficult.
The tie rod with the ball head has 10mm automatic correction function, and the allowable limit motion speed is 10m/s.


5 Linear Potentiometer Sensor Installation
1) The installation of the linear displacement sensor should balance two ends. Do not tighten the fixing bracket screws before the limit position is determined. The linear displacement sensor fixing bracket screws can be locked after adjusting the stroke.
2) The pull-ball universal head of the tie-rod displacement sensor allows a centering deviation with a radius of 1mm. Of course, the shorter the specification, the smaller the centering deviation is recommended.
3) After fixing the linear displacement sensor, when retracting the tie rod, the cylindrical body of the universal ball head should be able to have gaps in the four radial directions. Or adjust the mounting position of the universal head or the mounting bracket position near the extended end.
4) If there is a big misalignment when the pull rod is pulled out, adjust the mounting bracket near the end of the plug. This can be used as an auxiliary review method.
5) The mounting rod of the pull ball universal head and the pull rod are allowed to tilt at an angle of 12°. However, if the centering deviation and tilt deviation are both large during installation, the stability and service life of the electronic ruler will be affected. So further adjustment is required.
6) The slider electronic ruler can reduce the workload of adjusting the neutrality, but the auxiliary extension rod cannot be cancelled. Because the stability and service life due to the poor neutralization will occur, and even damage the sensor.
7) After all adjustments are made, tighten the mounting screws to make the grounding resistance less than 1. Measure the resistance between the cover screw of the potentiometer sensor and the mounting bracket with a multimeter in the 200 block.
8) When using a four-wire system or wiring with a shielded wire, the grounding end of the linear potentiometer should be connected, and the fourth end or shielding wire should be grounded at the end of the electric control box correctly.
KTM Linear Displacement Sensor

6 Linear Transducer Operating Requirements
The supply voltage should be stable.
Industrial power supply requires ±0.1% stability. For example, the reference voltage is 10V, and the fluctuation of ±0.01V is allowed under the fluctuating voltage. Otherwise, it will cause the displayed trap to fluctuate.
Prevent electrostatic interference.
Electrostatic interference and FM interference can easily make the digital display of the linear displacement sensor jump. Separate the strong current line of the equipment from the signal line of sensor in a wire duct. The potentiometer should use a grounding support, and its shell (the resistance between the end cover screw and the support should be less than 1Ω) must be well grounded. The signal line should be shielded and well grounded where at one end of the electrical box.
In the case of electrostatic interference, the voltage measurement of the general multimeter is normal, but it shows the digital beating, even the phenomenon is the same when the high-frequency device is interfered. To verify whether it is electrostatic interference, use a power cord to short-circuit the cover screw of the sensor with a certain point of metal on the machine. However, it is difficult to eliminate high-frequency interference by the above-mentioned methods, which occurs frequently in robots and inverters. Stopping the robot or the inverter power saver can test it.
Wiring
Lines "1" and "3" are power lines, and "2" is the output line. Once the above line is connected wrongly, there will be large linear errors, resulting in poor control accuracy, and display bounce easily.
The power supply capacity should be sufficient.
If the power supply capacity is too small, the following situations are likely to occur: the mold clamping movement will cause the display of the glue injection ruler to jump, or the melt movement will cause the display of the mold clamping potentiometer sensor to fluctuate. Especially when the power supply of solenoid valve drive power supply is combined with the sensor, the above-mentioned situation is prone to occur. In severe cases, the voltage fluctuation can be measured with the voltage file of a multimeter. If the problem cannot be solved, even if the electrostatic interference and high-frequency interference are eliminated, the neutrality is also bad. At this time, you can check the power supply efficiency.
installation angle
The angle tolerance is ±12°, and the parallelism tolerance is ±0.5mm. If both are too large, it will cause the display number to jump. In this case, the angle and parallelism must be adjusted.
Prevent short circuit.
During the working process of the displacement sensor, the data is regularly displayed at a certain point or no data. In this case, it is necessary to check whether the connection line insulation is damaged and the ground short circuit caused by regular contact with the machine's metal casing.
Avoid aging.
For the linear displacement sensor that has been used for a long time, the seal is aging, there may be a lot of impurities, such as oil and water mixture, which affect the contact resistance of the brush, and cause the display number. It can be considered as the early damage of sensor.
KTF Linear Displacement Sensor

7 Linear Displacement Sensor Use Matters
1) If the potentiometer sensor has been used for a long time, and the seal has been aging, there are a lot of impurities mixed in, and the water mixture and oil will seriously affect the contact resistance of the brush, which will cause the displayed number to jump continuously. At this time, it can be said that the electronic ruler of the linear displacement sensor has been damaged and needs to be replaced.
2) If the capacity of the power supply is small, there will be many situations. Therefore, the power supply should have sufficient capacity. Because insufficient capacity will cause the following situation: The movement of the melt will change the display of the sensor to cause the fluctuations, resulting in a large error in the measurement result.
If the driving power of the solenoid valve and the power supply of the linear displacement sensor are at the same time, the above situation is more likely to occur. In serious cases, the voltage range of the multimeter can even measure the relevant fluctuations of the voltage. If the situation is not caused by high-frequency interference, electrostatic interference, or insufficient neutrality, then it may be caused by the small power supply.
3) FM interference and electrostatic interference may cause the digital scale of the linear displacement sensor to jump. The signal line of the sensor and the strong current line of the equipment should be separated from the wire duct. Use the grounding support to have good contact with the ground. The signal wire needs to use a shielded wire, and a section of the electrical box should be grounded to the shielded wire.
If there is high-frequency interference, the voltage measurement with a multimeter will usually display abnormally. When there is electrostatic interference, the situation is the same as that of high-frequency interference. To prove whether it is electrostatic interference, you can use a power cord to short-circuit the cover screw of the sensor with some metal on the machine. As long as it is short-circuited, the e-interference will be eliminated immediately. However, if you want to eliminate high-frequency interference, it is difficult to use the above method. Frequency-conversion power savers and robots often have high-frequency interference, so you can try to stop them to verify the interference.
4) The power supply voltage must be stable. The industrial voltage needs to meet the stability of ±0.1%. For example, if the reference voltage is 10V, a fluctuation of ±0.01V can be allowed. If it is not, it will cause a display fluctuation. But if the amplitude of the display fluctuation at this time does not exceed the amplitude of the fluctuation voltage, then the potentiometer sensor is normal.
5) As for the linear displacement sensor installation, the parallelism can be allowed to have an error of ±0.5mm, and the angle can be allowed to have an error of ±12°. However, if both are too large, then the display number will be bounced. So the parallelism and angle must be adjusted.
6) During the connection process, be sure to pay more attention, the wires of the potentiometer sensor cannot be connected wrongly.
Andrewen 1 november 2021, 9:49

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lavyasingh 20 october 2021, 6:52

Electrical Relay is an automatic control element with isolation switch function, which is widely used in electronic equipment such as remote control, monitoring, communication, electromechanical integration and so on. It can generally reflect a certain input variable (such as current, voltage, power, impedance, frequency, temperature, pressure, speed, light, etc.) sensing mechanism (input part); automatic control on-off (output part); between the input part and output part of the relay, there is also an intermediate mechanism (drive part) for coupling and isolating the input, functional processing and driving the output part.
common electrical relay structure
Fig 1. Common Electrical Relay Structure
As a control element, the relay has the following functions:
1) Expand the scope of control. For example, when the control signal of a multi-contact relay reaches a certain value, multiple circuits can be switched, disconnected, and connected at the same time according to different forms of contact groups.
2) Amplify. For example, sensitive relays, intermediate relays, etc., can control a circuit with a large power with a very small control quantity.
3) Integrated signal. For example, when multiple control signals are input to a multi-winding relay in a prescribed form, they are compared and integrated to achieve a predetermined control effect.
4) Automatic, remote control and monitoring. For example, the relay on the automatic device and other electrical appliances can form a program control circuit to realize automatic operation.


Mercury Relay
The mercury relay is composed of a coil, a plunger core, mercury and two electrodes. The contact is sealed in a sealed tube filled with mercury. When the relay is closed, the contact is conducted by mercury. That is, the mercury is installed in a long, sealed glass tube. When the glass tube is tilted, the electrical contacts at both ends of the glass tube are blocked. When the glass tube is horizontal, the electrical contacts at both ends are connected by mercury.
mercury relay structure
Fig 2. Mercury Relay Structure
1. Use a smaller current and voltage to control relay wire package, and its mercury contact can control a larger current and voltage load.
2. There will be arc when the current is large.
3. The frequency should not be too high, approximately in seconds.
4. Generally, it will not explode. If the seal is not tight, there will be leakage. The current sealing technology may be more reliable nowadays.
5. It is more impact resistant and has a longer life. If the current is not too high, it is better to use solid state relays.
6. If possible, you can also use low-power solid state relays to drive ultra-low resistance and high-power field effect transistors to replace mercury relay.

Voltage Relay
voltage relay structure
Fig 3. Voltage Relay Structure
Voltage relay is an electronic control device. It has a control system (also called an input loop) and a controlled system (also called an output loop). It is usually used in automatic control circuits. In fact, it is a kind of "automatic switch" using uses a smaller current to control high current. Therefore, it plays the role of automatic adjustment, safety protection, and conversion circuit in the circuit. Mainly used in relay protection devices of generators, transformers and transmission lines, as the starting element for over-voltage protection or low-voltage lockout. So voltage relay is a kind of starting relay.

Thermal Relay
Thermal relays generally have functions such as phase failure protection, overload protection, overload current adjustment, action indication, temperature compensation, and automatic/manual reset.
thermal relay structure
Fig 4. Thermal Relay Structure
The thermal relay is mainly used for overload protection of asynchronous motors. Its working principle is that after the overload current passes through the thermal element, the bimetallic sheet is heated and bent to push the action mechanism to drive the contact action, thereby disconnecting the motor control circuit to realize the motor disconnection, which play the role of overload protection. During the heating and bending process of the bimetallic strip, the heat transfer takes a long time. Therefore, the thermal relay cannot be used for short-circuit protection, but can only be used for overload protection of the thermal relay.
Andrewen 19 october 2021, 7:47

Introduction
As we all know, resistors play a important role in limiting current in the circuit. Among then, pull-up resistors and pull-down resistors are often mentioned and frequently used in electronics. The pull-up is to clamp the uncertain signal to a high logical level through a resistor, which acts as a current limiter; while the pull-down resistor clamps the uncertain signal to a low logical level. Because there are only two states of high level and low level in digital circuits, it is uncertain at the initial stage of digital signals.

1 Why pull-down and pull-up resistor?
Pull-up and pull-down resistors are often applied when interfacing a switch or some other input with a microcontroller or other digital gates. That is, in the initial stage of digital circuit power-on, because the high logical level and low level of the output state are uncertain, in order to make the circuit state normally, a pull-up resistor or pull-down resistor is needed to stabilize the uncertain circuit state. The low logical level is connected to GND inside the IC, and the high level is connected to the super resistance inside the IC.
The pull-up resistor connects with the status port of the power supply. Simply put, the high voltage is applied to this point, where the potential will increase. The pull-down resistor means that the resistor is connected to the negative pole, and there is also the case of digital grounding. When the input port signal changes due to different circuit forms, the change will be fed back to the output port, so that the output port acquires a state that should have been completed, but the input port has no signal at this time and keep the original state.
According to the above understanding, many people may feel awkward. Take an example from daily life, when you use the key to open the door, people enter but the door is not closed, at this time, you can add a switch to make the door close automatically.

Schematic of Pull-up Resistor at Positive Input
Schematic of Pull-up Resistor at Positive Input

The above schematic diagram explains why the positive pole and the input terminal resistor can high the level. The two resistances of the port are assumed to be equivalent. We can get that the voltage of the port is 2.5V according to Ohm's law. By connecting the pull-up resistor (red part), the voltage of the port rises at this time, calculate the port voltage. Among them, 10K is connected in parallel with the later connected 1K, and the resistance must be greater than or equal to 1K, which is equivalent to the series relationship between 1K and the 10K resistor below, but the passing current is actually the same. Finally, the voltage of the two 10K resistors increases, and the terminal voltage also increases.
The pin connected to the IC and power (or ground) is not necessarily a pull-down resistor. When this happens, many people may think that the red part of the figure is also a pull-down resistor. However, it is not connected in series with any pin or ground. In fact, it is used for circuit startup resistor, not pull-up/pull-down resistor. For the pull-up/pull-down resistors, it is only for the input port and the output port. Although some circuits will connect the pull-up and pull-down resistors to the redundant ports for stability, not all the resistors are connected to one pin of the IC all the time, and the other pin is connected to power or ground to represent the pull-up and pull-down resistors.

2 Pull-up & Pull-down Resistor Circuits
Look at the following analyses to figure out what are pull-up resistor and pull-down resistor in circuits. Pull-up resistors are used to ensure that a wire is pulled to a high logical level in the absence of an input, while pull-down resistors ensure the voltage between VCC and a microcontroller pin is actively controlled. Just check the details below.

OC(TTL) Circuit, OD(COMS) Circuit
OC(TTL) Circuit, OD(COMS) Circuit

When the I/O port of the IC is in high level, the impedance between the node and GND is very large, which can be understood as infinite. At this time, it is connected to VCC through a pull-up resistor (such as 4.7K ohm, 10K ohm resistor), and the voltage divider of the pull-up resistor is almost negligible. When the I/O port node is in low level, it can be directly connected to GND. At this time, VCC and GND are connected through the pull-up resistor, and the current passing through is very small, which can be ignored.
The level value are relative to the ground level, so you should refer to the ground level value. See if those pins are connected to the ground, it has nothing to do with whether they are connected to peripheral devices.
Connect a 10K ohm or 4.7K ohm pull-up resistor between the node and +5V to pull up the potential of this node. Often this node requires a single-chip microcomputer or other controller to control it (and this node is connected to I/O). If you simply want to make this node a high level, and the output impedance is very large, you can directly connect the power supply, but if the microcontroller wants to make this node low, that is, the node is grounded inside the microcontroller, so that the 5V power supply and the ground are short-circuited.
In addition, when this node is required to be at a high level, the impedance between this node and the ground is generally very large. For example, with an impedance of 100K ohms, when connect a 10K ohm pull-up resistor, the voltage at this point is 100KΩ/(100K +10K)*5V=4.5V, so it can also get a high level.
When the node is required to be low level, just connect it to the ground, and there is a 10K resistor between the power supply and the ground, so that it will not be short-circuited. When it is low, there is a loop formed by a load between the power supply and the ground. Sometimes this node will be connected with a resistor in series. Because the current flows to the place with low impedance, the current will flow to the ground through the resistor connected to the power supply instead of Flow to this resistance connected to the node, because the resistor connected to this node has a high impedance, so the potential at this point is in low level.
It can be considered that, for the I/O port of the IC, controlling the high and low levels inside the IC is equivalent to controlling the O/O port to be connected to its internal GND or a very large resistor, such as 100K ohms. When the I/O port is the low level (0V), inside the IC, the pin that controls the O/O port of the IC chip is connected to GND.
When the I/O port is at a high level, such as 5V, the I/O port pin is connected to a very large resistor in the chip, such as 100K ohms, and sometimes another one is connected in series at the I/O node. A resistor with a small resistance value, such as 68 ohms, because the current flows to a place with low impedance, when the I/O port and GND inside the chip are connected to a low level, the pull-up resistor and the GND inside the chip form a loop.
At this time, the current at the I/O port node will flow to the GND inside the chip, because a small resistance resistor is connected in series at the node, which is high resistance relative to GND, so the current will not flow through this series resistor.
Using a pull-down resistor, when the I/O port is in a high-impedance state, the pull-up resistor can keep it in a high-level state. That is, when the I/O port is in the high-impedance state, using a pull-down resistor to connect this port to GND. The high-impedance state has a large resistance value, which can be understood as disconnection, in fact, it is actually a large resistor inside the chip. The resistors are connected and pulled to the ground, so there is no current and the level value is 0. It can only work unless a high level value is given to this pin.
Pull-up and Pull-down Resistor in MCU

3 What the Role of Pull-up and Pull-down Resistors?
As for the purpose of pull-up & pull-down resistors, generally speaking, the pull-up resistor increases the current, and the pull-down resistor is used to absorb the current.
1) Increase the voltage level.
When the TTL circuit drives the CMOS circuit, if the output high level of the TTL circuit is lower than the lowest high level of the CMOS circuit, then it is necessary to connect a pull-up resistor to the output terminal of the TTL to increase the value of the output high level. The OC gate circuit must add a pull-up resistor to increase the high-level value of the output.
2) Increase the drive capability of the output pin.
In order to enhance the drive capability of the output pins, pull-up resistors are often used on some single-chip pins.
3) The N/A pin (the pin not connected) should be anti-static and anti-interference.
On the CMOS chip, in order to prevent damage caused by static electricity, the unused pins cannot be left floating. Generally, a pull-up resistor is connected to reduce the input impedance, provide a leakage path, and improve the anti-electromagnetic interference ability of the bus. Because the pin is left floating, it is easier to receive electromagnetic interference from the outside world.
4) Resistance match
In the long-line transmission, the resistance mismatch can easily cause the reflected wave interference. In addition, the pull-down resistor makes the resistance match, which can effectively suppress the reflected wave interference.
5) Preset space state/default potential
Pull-up or pull-down resistors are connected to some CMOS input terminals to preset the default potential. When these pins are not used, these input terminals are pulled down to low level or pulled up to high level. The state when idle on the bus such as I2C is obtained by the pull-up and pull-down resistors.
6) Improve the noise tolerance of the chip input signal.
If the input terminal is in a high-impedance state, or in a floating state, a pull-down or pull-down resistor needs to be added at this time, so as to avoid the random level. Similarly, if the output terminal is in a passive state, a pull-down or pull-down resistor needs to be added. For example, the output terminal is only the collector of a transistor, thereby improving the noise tolerance of the chip input signal and enhancing the anti-interference ability through a pull-up resistor or pull-down resistor.
Pull-up/ Pull-down Resistor

4 Pull-up & Pull-down Resistor Applications
When to use pull-up or pull-down resistors? Look at the following cases explained.
1) If a pull-up & pull-down resistor is used for the input signal pin, the usual function is clamping the signal to a certain level to prevent the signal line from appearing in an uncertain state. In practical applications, the 10K ohm resistor is the most used pull-up resistor. Whether to use a pull-up resistor or a pull-down resistor depends mainly on the needs of the circuit system itself. For example, for a highly effective enable control signal, we hope that the circuit system be in an invalid state after power-on, and then a pull-down resistor will be used.
Assuming that the enable signal is used to control the motor, if it is left floating, the signal line may be triggered falsely to a high level by other noise interference after power-on (or during operation), resulting in undesired rotation of the motor, and a pull-down resistor can be added at this time. Correspondingly, for the active-low reset control signal (RST#), if we want to be in an inactive state after power-on reset, a pull-up resistor should be used.
2) Most chips with logic control functions (such as single-chip microcomputers, FPGAs, etc.) will integrate pull-up or pull-down resistors. Users can choose whether to turn on or not according to their needs. STM32 microcontroller GPIO mode includes pull-up or pull-down.
3) According to the resistance value of the pull-up resistor, we can also divide it into strong or weak pull-up/down. The pull-up resistors integrated in the chip are usually weak pull-up (larger resistance), the smaller the pull-up resistance, the stronger the level capability (strong pull), and the stronger the ability to resist external noise (that is, if the unwanted interference noise is to change the strong pull signal level, the required energy must be strengthened accordingly ), but the smaller the pull-up resistance, the greater the corresponding power consumption, because the normal signal requires more energy to change the state of the signal line. In terms of energy consumption, both pull-up /down resistors are the same.
4) There is no strict definition of how many ohms are the boundary between strong pull and weak pull. Generally, the pull-up resistors we use are weak pulls, so we can still use external control signals to pull up/down the signal lines as needed.
The extreme of the strong pull resistance is the zero, that is, the signal line can directly connected to the power supply or ground.
5) There are more knowledge points involved when the pull-up resistor is used as an output (or input and output), but the essential function is also to clamp the level. The most common output pull-up resistor appears in the open collector (OC) Or open drain (OD) structure pin.
6) The current sink capability and current source capability are also called the drive capability of the chip pins. For any given chip, the pin drive capability is limited. If the load driven by the pin is large, it may cause the output level to be incorrect (the predetermined level cannot be output).
7) OC (OD) pin output structure is different (OC structure exists in the transistor, and OD structure exists in the field effect transistor FET). The output of most comparator chips is an OD/OC output structure, and the signal pins of many chips or modules that feed back the system status are also in this structure, so that users can pull up the level to the corresponding level according to the actual needs of the circuit system. With the power supply voltage VCC, the level conversion can be omitted.

5 How to Select Pull-up & Pull-down Resistors?
When select pull-up & pull-down resistors, you can consider the following three aspects:
1) Considering power saving, sink current capability of the chip should be large enough, the resistance is large and the current is small.
2) It is necessary to ensure sufficient drive current, so the resistance is small and the current is large.
3) For high-speed circuits, excessive pull-up resistors may have smooth edges.
Considering the above three points comprehensively, the resistance value is usually selected between 1K and 10K. The same principle applies to pull-down resistors.
Andrewen 7 october 2021, 9:33

Introduction
As a passive device, capacitors have unique functions in electronic circuits such as tuning, bypassing, coupling, and filtering. For example, it is used in the tuning circuit of the transistor radio, and also used in the coupling circuit and bypass circuit of the color TV. With the rapid development of electronic information technology, the update speed of digital electronic products is getting faster and faster. Capacitors play an important role in consumer electronic products such as flat-panel TVs (LCD and PDP), notebook computers, digital cameras and other products. Therefore, it is very important to ensure the normal use of capacitors and to test its quality. Here this article will talk about how to test a capacitor in detail.
image

1 Test a Capacitor Using Multimeter
1.1 Multimeter Blocks Selection
1.1.1 Using Capacitance Gear

Some digital multimeters have the function of measuring capacitance, and their ranges include five ranges: 2000p, 20n, 200n, 2μ and 20μ. During test, the two pins of the discharged capacitor can be directly inserted into the Cx jack on the meter board, and the display data can be read after selecting the appropriate range.
2000p range is suitable for measuring capacitances less than 2000pF.
20n range is suitable for measuring capacitances between 2000pF and 20nF.
200n range is suitable for measuring capacitances between 20nF and 200nF.
2μ range is suitable for measuring capacitances between 200nF and 2μF The capacitance.
20μ gear, suitable for measuring the capacitance between 2μF and 20μF.
Experiments have proved that some types of digital multimeters have large errors when measuring small capacitors below 50pF, and there is almost no reference value for measuring capacitors below 20pF. At this time, the series method can be used to measure small-value capacitors. For example: measure a capacitor of about 220pF. Test its actual capacity C1 with a digital multimeter, and then connect the small capacitor in parallel to measure its total capacity C2, then the difference between the two (C1-C2) is the capacity of the small capacitor. It is very accurate to use this method to measure small capacitance of 1-20pF.

1.1.2 Using Resistance Gear
In practice, it has proved that the charging process of the capacitor can also be observed with a digital multimeter, which is actually a discrete digital quantity that reflects the change of the charging voltage. Assuming that the measurement rate of the digital multimeter is n times/second, in the process of observing the charging of the capacitor, n independent and successively increasing readings can be seen every second. According to this display values, the quality of the capacitor can be detected and the size of the capacitance can be estimated. This method is suitable for measuring large-capacity capacitors from 0.1μF to several thousand microfarads.

1.1.3 Using Voltage Gear
Using a digital multimeter to detect capacitors with DC voltage is actually an indirect method. This method can measure small-capacity capacitors from 220pF to 1μF, and can accurately measure the size of the capacitor's leakage current.

1.1.4 Using Buzzer
Using the buzzer of the digital multimeter, you can quickly check the quality of the electrolytic capacitor. For example, set the digital multimeter to the buzzer position, and use two test leads to contact the two pins of the capacitor Cx to be tested. A short buzzer should be heard, then the sound stops, and the overflow symbol "1" is displayed at the same time. Then, exchange the two test leads for another measurement, the buzzer should sound again, and finally the overflow symbol "1" is displayed. This situation indicates that the measured electrolytic capacitor is basically normal. At this point, you can dial to 20MΩ or 200MΩ to measure the leakage resistance of the capacitor to judge whether it is good or bad.

1.2 Capacitor Measurements Matter
(1) Before the measurement, the two pins of the capacitor should be short-circuited and discharged, otherwise the reading process may not be observed.
(2) Do not touch the capacitor electrode with two hands during the measurement process, so as to prevent the meter from jumping.
(3) During the measurement process, the value of Vin(t) changes exponentially, and it drops quickly at the beginning. As time goes by, the speed of decline will become slower and slower. When the capacity of the capacitor Cx under test is less than several thousand picofarads, and the measurement rate of the meter is low, it is too late to reflect the initial voltage value, so the initial display value of the meter is lower than the battery voltage at very first.
(4)When the measured capacitance value is greater than 1μF, in order to shorten the test time, the resistance gear can be used. In addition, when the capacity of the capacitor under test is less than 200pF, it is difficult to observe the charging process because the change in readings is very short.
Be sure to cut off the power and discharge capacitor before measuring. The method of discharging is to find a metal object such as a screwdriver, hold the exposed part of the metal on the insulating handle with the two pins, and measure the capacitance with a digital multimeter. Locate the capacitor block and then plug the two pins into the socket for capacitance measurement, and wait for the changing reading on the meter screen to stabilize. The actual value is the capacitance of the capacitor on the side. If has leakage, an analog multimeter can be used. When measuring, the small-capacity capacitor multimeter can be placed in RX1K or RX100. The two test leads are connected to the capacitor, the pointer deflects clockwise, and then as the capacitor is fully charged, there is no current flows, finally the watch hand will reappear counterclockwise and return to infinity. The larger the angle of the watch hand, the greater the capacity. During the deflection process, the pointer must swing at a constant speed so that it can return to infinity, which preliminarily shows that the capacitor has no leakage.
If the needle suddenly slows down or does not return at a certain position on the dial, it means that the capacitor is leaking in a certain period. If it is displayed as infinity at the end, it shows that there is no leakage, but this can only be a rough judgment. If you want to find an accurate value, you have to use a capacitance meter. And the observation characteristic on the capacitance leakage tester or oscilloscope, this is impossible for ordinary people to have. There are also capacitors that have withstand voltage, which is generally written on their body. However, some ceramic capacitors are not marked on it, be careful when selecting them.

1.3 Test Non-polar Capacitors
If it is a non-polar capacitor, the multimeter can be adjusted to the "diode" gear to measure the on-off state. If the multimeter displays "1", it is normal; if displays "0" or other numbers, it means the capacitor is damaged.

1.4 Test Polar Capacitors
Electrolytic capacitors with polarities have "bulging", "deformation" or "leakage" in the shell, which show they are damaged. The capacitance block of a digital multimeter can also be used to measure the quality of the capacitor:
(1) According to the rated capacitance marked by the capacitor, set the multimeter to the appropriate block.
(2) Insert the capacitor into the hole of the multimeter to measure the capacity.
If the capacitance is within the rated value range, it means the capacitor is intact, otherwise the capacitor is damaged.

1.5 Test Chip Capacitors
1) Adjust the multimeter to the appropriate ohm gear. The principle of gear selection is: 1μF capacitor uses 20K gear, 1~100μF capacitor uses 2K gear, and larger than 100μF uses 200 gear.
2) Determine the polarity. First adjust the multimeter to 100 or 1K ohms. Assuming that one pole is positive, connect the black test lead to it, and the red test lead to the other pole. Note the resistance value, and then discharge the capacitor. Then change the test lead to measure the resistance. The black test lead with a large resistance value is connected to the positive electrode of the capacitor.
3) Then connect the red pen of the multimeter to the positive electrode of the capacitor, and the black pen to the negative electrode of the capacitor. If the display gradually increases from 0, and the overflow symbol 1 is displayed at the end, which shows the capacitor is normal. If it is always displayed as 0, the capacitor is short-circuited. If 1 is displayed, the internal circuit of the capacitor is open.

1.6 Test Solid State Capacitors
Capacitance Greater than 20μF
With a common digital multimeter, the maximum measured value of the capacitance block is 20μF, which sometimes cannot meet the test requirements. To this end, the following simple method can be used to measure capacitance greater than 20μF, and also the maximum capacitance of several thousand microfarads can be measured. When using this method to measure large-capacity capacitors, there is no need to make any changes to the original circuit of the digital multimeter.
The measurement principle of this method is based on the formula C = C1C2/(C1+C2) in series with two capacitors. Since two capacitors with different capacities are connected in series, the total capacity after series connection is smaller than the smaller capacitor. Therefore, if the capacity of the capacitor under test exceeds 20μF, only one capacitor with a capacity less than 20μF should be used. In series with it, it can be directly measured on the digital multimeter. According to the formula above mentioned, it is easy to deduce C1=C2C/(C2-C), using this formula can calculate the capacitance value of the capacitor under test.

1.7 Capacitance Less than 10μF
Because the capacity of a fixed capacitor below 10pF is too small, it can only be roughly checked for leakage, internal short circuit or voltage breakdown with a multimeter. When measuring, you can choose the R×10k block, and use two test pens to connect the two pins of the capacitor arbitrarily, and the resistance should be infinite. If the measured resistance value (the pointer swings to the right) is zero, it means that the capacitor is damaged by leakage or has internal breakdown.

1.8 Capacitance between 10PF and 0.01μF
Detect whether the capacitor is charging, and then judge whether it is good or bad. The multimeter selects the R×1k block. The β value of the two transistors is above 100, and the penetration current should be small. A composite tube can be used consist of silicon transistors. The red and black test leads of the multimeter are respectively connected to the emitter e and collector c of the composite tube. Due to the amplification effect of the composite triode, the charge and discharge process of the capacitor under test is amplified, and the amplitude of the pointer of the multimeter is enlarged, which is convenient for observation. It should be noted that during the test operation, especially when measuring small-capacity capacitors, it is necessary to repeatedly exchange the contact points A and B of the tested capacitor pin to clearly see the swing of the meter pointer.

1.9 Fixed Capacitance of 0.01μF
For a fixed capacitance above 0.01μF, the R×10k block of a multimeter can be used to directly test whether the capacitor has the charging process and internal short circuit or leakage, in addition, the capacitance of the capacitor can be estimated according to the magnitude of the pointer swing to the right.

1.10 Test Electrolytic Capacitors
1) Because the capacity of electrolytic capacitors is much larger than that of general fixed capacitors, ranges should be selected for different capacities when measuring. According to experience, in general, the capacitance between 1 and 47μF can be measured with the R×1k block, and the capacitance larger than 47μF can be measured with the R×100 block.
2) Connect the red test lead of the multimeter to the negative pole and the black test lead to the positive pole. At the moment of contact, the pointer of the multimeter will deflect to the right by a greater degree (for the same electrical barrier, the greater the capacity, the greater the swing), and then gradually turn to the left Turn around until it stops at a certain position. The resistance value at this time is the forward leakage resistance of the electrolytic capacitor, which is slightly larger than the reverse leakage resistance. Practical experience shows that the leakage resistance of electrolytic capacitors should generally be more than several hundred kΩ, otherwise, it will not work normally. In the test, if there is no charging phenomenon in the forward and reverse directions, that is, the hand does not move, it means that the capacity has disappeared or the internal circuit is broken; if the measured resistance value is very small or zero, it means that the capacitor has a large leakage or has been broken down.
3) For electrolytic capacitors with unknown positive and negative signs, the above method of measuring leakage resistance can be used to distinguish. That is to measure the leakage resistance arbitrarily, remember its size, and then exchange the test leads to measure a resistance value. The larger resistance of the two measurements is the positive connection, that is, the black test lead is connected to the positive electrode, and the red test lead is connected to the negative electrode. Use a multimeter to block electricity and charge the electrolytic capacitor. According to the magnitude of the pointer swing to the right, the capacity of the electrolytic capacitor can be estimated.
When measuring electrolytic capacitors, if the measured value does not change significantly, the corresponding pins of the probe should be exchanged for multiple measurements.

1.11 Test Variable Capacitors
1) Rotate the shaft gently and smoothly. When pushing the load shaft in full directions, there should be no looseness of it.
2) Rotate the shaft with one hand and gently touch the outer edge of the film set with the other hand. You should not feel any looseness. The variable capacitor with poor contact between the rotating shaft and the moving plate can no longer be used.
3) Place the multimeter in the R×10k gear, connect the two test leads to the moving piece and the lead end of the fixed piece of the variable capacitor with one hand, and slowly rotate the shaft several times back and forth with the other hand. The pointers of the multimeter should not move at infinity. In the process of rotating the shaft, if the pointer sometimes points to zero, it indicates that there is a short-circuit point between the moving piece and the fixed piece. If it encounters a certain angle, the multimeter reading is not infinity but a certain resistance value, indicating that the variable capacitor has a leakage phenomenon between the film and the stator.

1.12 Capacitor Polarity Distinction
The black part with a mark on the capacitor is negative. There are two semicircles on the position of the capacitor on the PCB, and the pin corresponding to the colored semicircle is the negative electrode. The length of the pins is also useful to distinguish the polarity: the long pin is anode and the short pin is cathode.
When we don't know the positive and negative poles of the capacitor, we can use a multimeter to figure them out. The medium between the two poles of the capacitor is not an absolute insulator, and its resistance is not infinite, but a finite value, generally above 1000 megohms. The resistance between the two poles of a capacitor is called insulation resistance or leakage resistance. Only when the positive electrode of the electrolytic capacitor is connected to the positive power supply (the black test lead), and the negative terminal is connected to the negative power supply (the red test lead), the leakage current is small (the leakage resistance is large), on the contrary, the leakage current increases (the leakage resistance decreases).
Without knowing it, you can first assume the “+” pole of a certain pole. Using R*100 or R*1K of the multimeter, connect the test leads, and record the scale of the stop of the test needle (the resistance value of the test needle to the left is large), and the reading can be read directly for a digital multimeter. Then discharge the capacitor, then exchange the two test leads, and perform the measurement again. In the two measurements, the black test lead is connected to the positive electrode of the electrolytic capacitor when the last position of the needle is to the left (or the end with large resistance).
When measuring large capacity capacitors, if you need to measure the positive and negative back and forth, discharge it to avoid damage to the multimeter. In addition, in high-frequency circuits, switching power supply circuits have many small capacitors, which ordinary multimeters cannot correctly judge whether they are good or bad. In terms of this case, it is recommended to use a dedicated digital capacitance meter to measure.
image

2 Test a Capacitor Using Bridge
The data measured with a multimeter is not too accurate, and it can only measure the deviation of the capacity. For a little professional, you can use a bridge. When testing a capacitor with a digital bridge, you can clamp the lead of the capacitor to test its capacity, which can also show the loss of the capacitor, especially through the loss, it is easier to distinguish the quality of the capacitor.
image

3 Test a Capacitor Using Professional Equipment
In general, capacitors have special test equipment for each performance, such as capacitor durability test, destructive test, loss angle test, inter-electrode withstand voltage test, self-healing test, charge and discharge test, pulse voltage test, spontaneous combustion test, ripple current durability test, etc., but for most users, these devices are more expensive and difficult to operate. If you really want these data, you can entrust a third party to test or ask the manufacturer for relevant information.
Andrewen 22 september 2021, 8:26

Whether it is a birthday party, engagement party, promotion party, or just a casual get-together, everyone wants to remember those times for a long time. One of the ways to make sure that those moments remain in your memories forever, to get them captured in the form of photographs. Hence, an Issaquah photographer has become among the essential needs of an event. To make sure that every moment for you is captured, you must hire the best photographer available. For this, you can contact Shutterbabe Snapshots.



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shutterbabesnapshots 22 september 2021, 6:07

Whether it is a birthday party, engagement party, promotion party, or just a casual get-together, everyone wants to remember those times for a long time. One of the ways to make sure that those moments remain in your memories forever, to get them captured in the form of photographs. Hence, an Issaquah photographer has become among the essential needs of an event. To make sure that every moment for you is captured, you must hire the best photographer available. For this, you can contact Shutterbabe Snapshots.



Shutterbabe Snapshots, started by Andrea, focuses on people photography. With years of experience and hands filled with talent &amp; skills, Andrea has been photographing people beautifully. Shutterbabe Snapshots is not just a photography service for you. Instead, it is more like an unordinary experience for you and the people around you. You might be wondering that there are several specialized photographers available who can easily do the job and capture the best versions of you, but why go for Shutterbabe Snapshots instead of them? It is a common apprehension of people. But what makes Shutterbabe Snapshots stand ahead of its customers is its services.



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shutterbabesnapshots 22 september 2021, 6:06

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shutterbabesnapshots 22 september 2021, 5:08

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contractpediablogs 16 september 2021, 12:26

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Original Reference: https://bit.ly/3lo0n76
contractpedia 16 september 2021, 12:08
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