In this project, we will go over how to connect an P-Channel MOSFET to a circuit for it to function as an electronic switch.

The type of P-Channel MOSFET</a> we will use is the enhancement-type MOSFET, the most commonly used type of MOSFET.

MOSFETs, like BJTs, can function as electronic switches. Although unlike BJTs, MOSFETs are turned on, not by current, but by voltage.

MOSFETs are voltage-controlled devices. This means that a voltage applied to the gate controls whether the transistor switches on or off. When a P-channel (enhancement-type) MOSFET has no voltage at its gate, it is OFF and no current conducts across from source to drain; thus, the load connected to the MOSFET will not turn on. When there is sufficient voltage at the gate (about -3V), the MOSFET is on and current conducts across from the source to the drain to power on the load.
Tags: circuit, mosfet
RachelAnne 29 october 2021, 3:26

What is the Precision Operational Amplifier?

A Precision operational amplifier is an operational amplifier with better design specifications and topology than the conventional op-amp. Precision Op-amps are more accurate than your average general-purpose op-amps. In terms of design topology, Precision amplifiers have a better precision offset, zero-drift over time, lower internal noise (nV/√Hz), and input bias current. On the component scale, they have precise matching resistors etched in the substrate at the chip level.

Two examples
An LM741 op-amp has an offset voltage of 5mV. The offset voltage signifies the voltage that the user has to apply between the +ve and -ve of the IC, in order to get an output of 0V. On configuring the op-amp to operate at a gain of 100. The gain will not only multiply the input signal, but it will also multiply the offset voltage. This will result in the output voltage being off-value by a factor of +/-0.5V. On considering the OP177; a precision op-amp, with an offset voltage of 25uV. The same gain value of 100, would produce an error of only 2.5mV in a signal that has been amplified by a factor of 100.

The OP97 is a low-power alternative to the industry-standard precision op-amp, the OP07. The OP97 can be substituted directly into OP07, OP77, AD725, and PM1012 sockets with improved performance and/or less power dissipation and can be inserted into sockets conforming to the 741 pinouts if nulling circuitry is not used. Generally, nulling circuitry used with earlier generation amplifiers is rendered superfluous by the extremely low offset voltage of the OP97 and can be removed without compromising circuit performance. Extremely low bias current over the full military temperature range makes the OP97 attractive for use in sample-and-hold amplifiers, peak detectors, and log amplifiers that must operate over a wide temperature range. Balancing input resistances is not necessary with the OP97. Offset voltage and TCVOS are degraded only minimally by high source resistance, even when unbalanced.
RachelAnne 11 september 2021, 2:51

What is a fuse box in a car?
This article is mainly about the introduction of automotive fuse holders and focuses on the detailed description of the structure, classification, and functions of automobile fuse holders.

Automobile fuse holder refers to the holder for installing automobile fuses. Automobile fuse holders can be divided into: panel-mounted automobile fuse holders; lead-type automobile fuse holders; automobile fuse clips. Panel-mounted car fuse holders are mostly used in car electrical appliances, such as car amplifiers, car speakers, car DVDs, etc.


The function and structure of automobile fuse holder

In the process of using the car fuse holder, the fuse can withstand a certain range of overload due to the power supply or its external interference when the current fluctuates. When a relatively large overload current occurs in the circuit of the car fuse holder, its fuse box should cut off its overload current within a fixed time.

The car fuse holder can protect the safety of other electronic components in the circuit to a certain extent. When a short circuit occurs in the circuit and a large current occurs, the fuse can safely cut off the circuit, which will save them from Damage caused by overcurrent.

The rated current in the car fuse holder is effectively called the nominal operating current of the fuse. The rated current value is usually 100mA, 160mA, 200mA, 315mA, 400mA, 500mA, 630mA, 800mA, 1A, 1.6A, 2A, 2.5 A, 3.15A, 4A, 5A, 6.3A, etc.

   The fuse in the car fuse holder can be used at a voltage equal to or less than its rated voltage, but generally cannot be used in a circuit where the circuit voltage is greater than the rated voltage of the fuse. The voltage drop in the device causes the rated current to flow to the fuse.

The thermal balance of the car fuse holder, that is, when the temperature stabilizes, the measured voltage at both ends and the voltage drop across the fuse will have a certain impact on the circuit to a certain extent. Therefore, there is a clear regulation of voltage drop in the regulations, which is in the United States. There is no requirement in the regulations.

   The overload current in the car fuse holder mainly refers to the current that flows in the circuit higher than that during normal operation. If the overload current cannot be cut off, it may cause damage to other electronic components in the circuit.

Classification of car fuse holders

Leaded automotive fuse holders are mostly used in automotive wiring harnesses. Automobile fuse clips are used to install automobile fuses on circuit boards. They are easy to install and disassemble. According to the classification of installed fuses, they can be divided into fuse box and fuse box.

If car fuse holders are distinguished according to their fuse sizes, they can be divided into large fuse boxes, medium fuse boxes, and small fuse boxes. According to the material, they can be divided into plastic fuse boxes, bakelite fuse boxes, and environmental protection points. It can be divided into environmental protection fuse box and non-environmental protection fuse box. According to the installation method, it can be divided into lead type fuse box and circuit board type fuse box, instrument panel installation fuse box and so on.


For current-sensitive components, the function of automobile fuse holders is to make judgments on overcurrents. When an unallowable fault overcurrent flows, the fuse should be blown as a protection function; and for non-fault faults such as transient pulses. When current is applied, the fuse should be able to withstand enough times to ensure the normal use of the whole machine.

The current generally does not exceed the power-on pulse during normal use, and the number of energizations does not exceed 10 times. The car fuse holder should never be activated. Once an abnormal fusing occurs, there must be a problem. If the cause of the abnormal fusing is not found in time, Simply replacing the fuse or increasing the capacity of the fuse is not reassuring.

According to the classification of the installed fuse, it can be divided into fuse box and fuse box. According to the size of the fuse, it can be divided into large fuse box, medium fuse box, and small fuse box. According to the material, it can be divided into plastic fuse box, electric Wooden fuse boxes can be divided into environmental protection fuse boxes according to environmental protection, and non-environmental protection fuse boxes can be divided into installation methods: lead type fuse boxes and circuit board type fuse boxes, instrument panel installation fuse boxes
RachelAnne 20 august 2021, 8:24

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MarkScorze 7 june 2021, 9:07

Main features of RF modulator
1. Program sources such as digital TV set-top boxes, satellite receiver set-top boxes, video recorders, and DVDs can be connected.
2. Adopt high and intermediate frequency modulation, primary frequency conversion, and acoustic surface filter processing.
3. Up to 21 4-channel modulators can be connected by the mixer to form 84 channels.
4. Microcomputer control, double phase lock-in image and sound, standard video and audio input.
5. High-level output, continuously adjustable audio channel deviation, high reliability.
6. The RF modulator has an automatic RF output level calibration function.
7. Using frequency synthesis technology to ensure the frequency stability of the output TV channel.
8. Convenient operation, volume, video hue saturation, and RF output level can all be adjusted on the front panel.
RachelAnne 2 june 2021, 3:14

The picture shows a fragment of perfect cheat sheet that has the basic electronic components, including their appearance and the symbol on the schematic circuits.
Papay 7 april 2012, 13:31