Plankalkül (Plan Calculus) is first high-level programming language in the world designed for engineering purposes by Konrad Zuse between 1943 and 1946 for his computer Z4 (the picture of computer is below, taken from "Wikipedia").

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There was the World War II; Zuse worked in isolation from the scientists of other countries, quite independently. During this time he had created not only a programming language, but also he wrote 49 pages of programs for evaluating chess positions using this language. All his work was eventually more comprehensively published in 1972.
Pirat 11 december 2011, 14:27