Many programmers know firsthand that C and C++ program builds very long. Someone solves this problem by sword-fighting at build time, someone is going to the kitchen to "grab some coffee". This article is for those who are tired of this, and who decided it is time to do something about it. In this article, various ways of speeding up compilation time of a project are regarded, as well as treatment of a disease "fixed one header - a half of a project was rebuilt."
Before we start, let's find out/recall the main phases of the translation of C/C++ code into an executable program.
According to p. 18.104.22.168 (http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg14/www/docs/n1548.pdf) of the draft N1548 "Programming languages — C" and p.5.2 (http://www.open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/wg21/docs/papers/2017/n4659.pdf) N4659 "Working Draft, Standard for Programming Language C++"(published versions of the standards can be purchased here (https://www.iso.org/standard/57853.html) and here (https://www.iso.org/standard/68564.html), 8 and 9 translation phases are defined respectively. Let's leave out the details and consider the translating process in the abstract:
- Phase I - the source file arrives at the input preprocessor. Preprocessor makes content substitution of the specified in the #include files and expands macros. It corresponds to the phases 1 - 4 of the C11 and C++17 drafts.
- Phase II - the preprocessed file arrives at the compiler and gets converted to an object file. It corresponds to the phases 5 - 7 of the C11 draft and 5 - 8 of the C++17 draft.
- Phase III - a linker links object files and provides static libraries, forming an executable program. It corresponds to the phases 8 - 9 of the C11 and C++17 drafts respectively.
The program is compound of translation units (*.c, *.cc, *.cpp, *.cxx), each is self-sufficient and can be preproccessed/compiled independently from the other. It also follows that each translation unit has no information about the other units. If the two units have to exchange any information (such as a function), this is solved by linking by name: the external entity is declared with the keyword extern, and at the phase III the linker links them. A simple example:
int64_t abs(int64_t num)
return num >= 0 ? num : -num;
extern int64_t abs(int64_t num);
To simplify the harmonization of different translation units, a header files mechanism was figured out, which is a declaration of clear interface. Subsequently, each translation unit in case of need includes the header file through the #include preprocessor directive.
Next, let's look at how you can speed up the build at different phases. In addition to the principle itself, it will also be helpful to describe how to implement this or that way in the build system. The examples will be given to the following build systems: MSBuild, Make, CMake.
Read more - https://www.viva64.com/en/b/0549/
The Unreal Engine project continues to develop - new code is added, and previously written code is changed. The inevitable consequence of the development in a project? The emergence of new bugs in the code that a programmer wants to identify as early as possible. One of the ways to reduce the number of errors is the use of the static analyzer, 'PVS-Studio'. If you care about code quality, this article is for you.
Although, we did it (https://www.unrealengine.com/blog/how-pvs-studio-team-improved-unreal-engines-code) two years ago, since that time we got more work to do regards code editing and improvement. It is always useful and interesting to look at the project code base after a two-year break. There are several reasons for this.
First, we were interested to look at false positives from the analyzer. This work helped us improve our tool as well, which would reduce the number of unnecessary messages. Fighting false positives is a constant task for any developer of code analyzers.
The codebase of Unreal Engine has significantly changed over the two years. Some fragments were added, some were removed, sometimes entire folders disappeared. That's why not all the parts of the code got sufficient attention, which means that there is some work for PVS-Studio.
The fact that the company uses static analysis tools shows the maturity of the project development cycle, and the care given to ensuring the reliability and safety of the code.
We won't be talking about all the errors that we found and fixed, We will highlight only those that deserve attention, to our mind.
Read more - https://www.unrealengine.com/en-US/blog/static-analysis-as-part-of-the-process
P.S. Those who are willing, may take a look at other errors in the pull request on Github. To access the source code, and a specified pull request, you must have access to the Unreal Engine repository on GitHub. To do this, you must have accounts on GitHub and EpicGames, which must be linked on the website unrealengine.com. After that, you need to accept the invitation to join the Epic Games community on GitHub.Instruction (https://www.unrealengine.com/ue4-on-github).
IT conferences and meetings on programming languages see a growing number of speakers talking about static code analysis. Although this field is quite specific, there is still a number of interesting discussions to be found here to help programmers understand the methods, ways of use, and specifics of static code analysis. In this article, we have collected a number of videos on static analysis whose easy style of presentation makes them useful and interesting to a wide audience of both skilled and novice programmers.
What is Static Analysis?
A development team, working on a static analyzer, has already checked a game engine under Windows. In this check we used a Linux version and the result showed that there were a large number of serious errors. The article covers only the general analysis warnings and only “High” level of severity (there are also Medium and Low levels).
In this article we'll look at the main features of SonarQube - a platform for continuous analysis and measurement of code quality, and we'll also discuss advantages of the methods for code quality evaluation based on the SonarQube metrics.
SonarQube is an open source platform, designed for continuous analysis and measurement of code quality. SonarQube provides the following capabilities:
One of the main problems with C++ is having a huge number of constructions whose behavior is undefined, or is just unexpected for a programmer. We often come across them when using our static analyzer on various projects. But, as we all know, the best thing is to detect errors at the compilation stage. Let's see which techniques in modern C++ help writing not only simple and clear code, but make it safer and more reliable.
What is Modern C++?
The term Modern C++ became very popular after the release of C++11. What does it mean? First of all, Modern C++ is a set of patterns and idioms that are designed to eliminate the downsides of good old "C with classes", that so many C++ programmers are used to, especially if they started programming in C. C++11 looks way more concise and understandable, which is very important.
The PVS-Studio team have written an interesting article about the ways in which you might shoot yourself in the foot working with serialization, code examples, where the main pitfalls are, and also about the way static code analyzer can help you avoid getting into trouble.
This article will be especially useful to those who are only starting to familiarize themselves with the serialization mechanism. More experienced programmers may also learn something interesting, or just be reassured that even professionals make mistakes.
However, it is assumed that the reader is already somewhat familiar with the serialization mechanism.
Roslyn is a platform which provides the developer with powerful tools to parse and analyze code. It's not enough just to have these tools, you should also understand what they are needed for.
The article can be divided into 2 logical parts:
General information about Roslyn. An overview of tools provided by Roslyn for parsing and analyzing the code. We provide a description of entities and interfaces, as well as the point of view of a static analyzer developer.
Peculiarities that should be taken into account during the development of static analyzers. Description of how to use Roslyn to develop products of this class; what should be considered when developing diagnostic rules; how to write them; an example of a diagnostic.
This article is intended to answer these questions. Besides this, you will find details about the static analyzer development which uses Roslyn API.
More: Introduction to Roslyn and its use in program development
You are so lucky to be a programmer. I would like to be the programmer.
- Why do not you learn?
- I already tried. I checked out codeacademy and other websites, but it is not mine.
- Yep, the programming is not really for everyone.
- You are well paid, and you can create different things. Almost every day you get some crazy offers at least for 100 thousand dollars.
- Yep, honestly it's very flattering and a little mind-blowing.
- You get your share in the company and you know that the software engineers are always respected. You can implement any idea in the app and get rich. Moreover, you do not need to hire anyone for this.
- Actually, the programming makes me miserable.
- Wow. What do you mean by that?
- In order to be a good programmer, I need to develop a special mindset and that makes me sad. I noticed this in other programmers, of course, not all, but in many.
- What is this mindset?
- This is concentration on the strengths, and not on the weaknesses.
- Why do you need this to become a good coder?
- I work like this:
Presently, the distance learning system has been developing all the time. There is no longer a problem to get a good education remotely. Online learning has several advantages, such as learning at own pace, freedom and flexibility, accessibility, and social equality. The Web offers a variety of services to help gaining new knowledge.